Genes are biological chemical software routines that do specific tasks in our bodies. Oncogenes are genes that have been proven to contribute to the development and growth of cancer. There are approx. 50 distinct Oncogenes known and some that are found often over expressed in Medulloblastoma are MYC , MYCN and TAG. MYC and MYCN alone cause many hallmarks of cancer. When these genes are ran, they accelerate DNA replication, they turn off programmed cell death in two ways, drives new blood vessels to the cell / tumor and more (footnote ***).
Anti-Oncogenes are genes with the ability to police Oncogenes and keep them from going out of control and causing cancer (The most common damaged Medulloblastoma Anti-oncogene is P53 also known as TP53. There are two copies of TP53 and both must be damaged for this gene to be silenced (footnotes * **). When cancer happens, a couple basic things happen: