Archives For Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma – Cause and Effect

“During the last years increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be attributed to human malignancies arising from numerous tissues. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the potential mechanisms through which CMV infection may contribute to brain tumors by affecting tumor cell initiation, progression and metastasis formation. Recent evidence also suggests that anti-CMV treatment results in impaired tumor growth of CMV positive xenografts in animal models and potentially increased survival in CMV positive glioblastoma patients. Based on these observations and the high tumor promoting capacity of this virus, the classical and novel antiviral therapies against CMV should be revisited as they may represent a great promise for halting tumor progression and lower cancer deaths.”

CMV In Human Brain Tumors – World Journal Experimental Medicine

iStock_000006391407XSmallMany factors contribute to Cancer, but the key catalyst (even the underlying engine) is one of many Viruses, particularly CMV, but also VZV, Epstein Barr as well as other Viruses SV-40, BK, JCV and HPV. Each cancer in our body has one to many viruses associated with it. Some key ones are HPV – Human Papilloma Virus causes Cervical, Anal, Mouth, Throat, Lung, Vaginal and Penile Cancers. Epstein Barr causes Lymphoma, JC Polyoma Virus causes Colon Cancer. Epstein Barr, HPV & CMV have all been associated with Breast Cancer, thus one reason for it’s prevalence. Now down to kids Cancer, Medulloblastoma Neuroblastoma and it’s 99% terminal twin cancer Glioblastoma. For these cancers its mainly CMV (Human Cytomegalovirus), though other viruses like SV-40, JC and BK are also capable and have been found in these tumors.

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Viral Cancer I’ve written often about the fact that 99% of Glioblastoma and 92% of Medulloblastoma show active CMV infections  and show signs that CMV has hit and run certain tumor cells making genetic and epigenetic changes.  

Now researchers are testing Neuroblastoma for CMV and the latest research shows 100% of the tumors showed signs of CMV or cyclomegalovirus.  This continues to reinforce that brain cancers key consistent factor is the triggering of oncogenisis  is by a viral infection that over expresses oncogenes and disables key anti-oncogenes thus driving these devastating cancers and leads towards potential opportunities for new and less devastating treatment options including using anti-virals like Valcyte. 

https://www.dropbox.com/s/kz18ub4qbkjj2gy/ijc28265.pdf

Viral Cancer

Genes are biological chemical software routines that do specific tasks in our bodies. Oncogenes are genes that have been proven to contribute to the development and growth of cancer.  There are approx. 50 distinct Oncogenes known and some that are found often over expressed in Medulloblastoma are MYC , MYCN and TAG. MYC and MYCN alone cause many hallmarks of cancer. When these genes are ran, they accelerate DNA replication, they turn off programmed cell death in two ways, drives new blood vessels to the cell / tumor and more (footnote ***).

Anti-Oncogenes are genes with the ability to police Oncogenes and keep them from going out of control and causing cancer (The most common damaged Medulloblastoma Anti-oncogene is P53 also known as TP53. There are two copies of TP53 and both must be damaged for this gene to be silenced (footnotes * **). When cancer happens, a couple basic things happen:

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P53 Tumor Suppressor Gene – P53 gene (chromosome 17p13.1) is mutated in some Medulloblastomas. Besides Medulloblastoma, P53 down regulation is also known to contribute to Osteosarcoma, Basal Cell Sarcoma (skin cancer) and Gorlin Syndrome (includes issues like sternum bone deformation).  For those new to this topic, P53 is a gene in every cell in the human body that polices your cells for DNA damage and try’s to stop / repair it. So often if not always in cancer, one or multiple oncogenes will be over expressed driving cancer ( for my son it’s MYC) and anti oncogenes or Tumor Suppressor genes are being suppressed like P53, Since there are dietary supplements that have shown some capability to help turn P53 back up, it seems very worthy to evaluate this avenue if you believe you have P53 being down regulated, particularly if you have the added complications I mentioned that are also specifically linked to P53 chromosome damage.  And since this blog is primarily focused on Viral drivers of cancer, it should be noted that several viruses including CMV are known causes of P53 suppression as well.

http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(11)01516-9

http://p53.free.fr/Database/p53_cancer/p53_germline.html

http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v20/n53/full/1204946a.html

I’ve tried looking into ways to upregulate P53 genes.  Some that I researched include: Silymarin, aka Milk Thistle, as well as Melatonin.
http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/4/2/207.long

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22002314/

Another Anti-Oncogene suppressed in Medulloblastoma is PCDH10 located at chromosome 4q28.3 down-regulated in 73% of sampled Medulloblastoma tumor samples.

PCDH10 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastoma.
Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto

The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contributing to PCDH10 down-regulation in medulloblastoma. We examined the role of PCDH10 as a mediator of medulloblastoma cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell migration.

METHODS:
We identified a focal homozygous deletion of PCDH10 in medulloblastoma by surveying a cohort of 212 tumors by Affymetrix SNP array analysis. PCDH10 expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in a series of 26 tumors. The promoter methylation status of PCDH10 was determined using methylation specific PCR and Sequenom MassCLEAVE analysis. Functional studies examining the role of PCDH10 in medulloblastoma development were performed by re-expression of PCDH10 in the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line, and then, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell migration assays were performed.

RESULTS:
We report a very focal homozygous deletion on chromosome 4q28.3 harbouring the PCDH10 gene. We demonstrate that PCDH10 transcription is down-regulated in 19/26 (73%) of medulloblastomas suggesting that other mechanisms also could be involved in gene repression. We found that DNA hypermethylation contributed to the deregulation of PCDH10 in 11/44 (25%) of medulloblastoma cell lines and primary tumours. Using a stable cell line (DAOY) re-expressing PCDH10, we observed that cell migration was impaired upon restoration of PCDH10 expression.

CONCLUSIONS:
Our findings suggest that genetic and epigenetic deregulation of PCDH10 occurs in a significant portion of medulloblastoma patients. Failure to express PCDH10 may result in loss of inhibition of cell migration, thereby contributing to medulloblastoma progression.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21597995

Silencing of PCDH10 is also a known cause Epileptic seizures and other cancers.

http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/bng/101549.html

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The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and glioma sym- posium was convened on April 17, 2011 in Washington, DC, and was attended by oncologists and virologists involved in studying the relationship between HCMV and gliomas. The purpose of the meeting was to reach a consensus on the role of HCMV in the pathology of gliomas and to clarify directions for future research. First, the group summarized data that describe how HCMV biology overlaps with the key pathways of cancer. Then, on the basis of published data and ongoing research, a consensus was reached that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that HCMV sequences and viral gene expression exist in most, if not all, malig- nant gliomas, that HCMV could modulate the malig- nant phenotype in glioblastomas by interacting with key signaling pathways; and that HCMV could serve as a novel target for a variety of therapeutic strategies. In summary, existing evidence supports an oncomodula- tory role for HCMV in malignant gliomas, but future studies need to focus on determining the role of HCMV as a glioma-initiating event.

HallmarksOfCancerList

https://www.dropbox.com/s/u0f80r60kc8qkh5/%28H%29%20Neuro%20Oncol-2012-Dziurzynski-246-55.pdf

“HCMV can also do every one of the things that generally considered the 10 hallmarks ofcancer,” says Kalejta, a member of the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, Carbone Cancer Center, Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center and Institute for Molecular Virology at UW-Madison.

http://www.med.wisc.edu/news-events/new-evidence-links-virus-to-brain-cancer/32922

Ketogenic Diet To Fight Cancer

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Oncology Team,

Can the hospital recommend a dietary plan at the hospital for new cancer patients in addition to the current standard of care & clinical protocols since diet is not mentioned as part of most protocols? In this way, you are not deviating from standard protocols, just supporting healthy long term patient education on how to feed the body, not the cancer.Please read this and then consider the current standard care advice / plan of “have patients eat whatever they will eat on the hospital menu” in hospital after brain tumor resection surgery, radiation and beyond” versus the hospital designing, informing and offering a high good fat and low carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet” along with healthy dietary guidance for cancer patients under your care.

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