HCMV is found is 99%+ of Glioblastoma Brain Tumors. Researchers are now beginning to measure the level of CMV infection in the tumors as a prognostic marker for expected survival. The research shows that Low Levels of CMV in a Glioblastoma tumor correlates to survival beyond 18 months. Actively treating CMV in Glioblastoma has a direct and positive improvement in patients survival length. This issue needs further research and the same research applied to other cancers to improve their survival rates.
HCMV infection was detected in tumor samples from 79 of 80 patients (99%). Among patients surviving > 18 months, HCMV infection grade 1 in the GBM tumor was predominant. A low grade HCMV infection was found in 19 patients, of these 16 survived > 18 months. Thus, 16 of 40 (40%) GBM patients who lived > 18 months had low-grade HCMV infection while only 3 of 40 (8%) GBM patients who lived < 18 months did (p .0006, Chi-Square test). Multiple logistic regression analyses yielded an odds ratio estimate of 6.604 with 95% confidence interval (1.36-32.1) (p .019) for low grade HCMV after adjustment for RPA class III and IV, radical surgery, age and gamma knife treatment.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was first reported to be strongly associated with human malignant gliomas in 2002. HCMV is a herpesvirus that causes congenital brain infection and multi-organ disease in immumocompromised individuals. Malignant gliomas are the most common and aggressive adult brain tumors and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the highest grade glioma, is associated with a life expectancy of less than two years. HCMV gene products encode for multiple proteins that can promote the various signaling pathways critical to tumor growth, including those involved in mitogenesis, mutagenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion and immuno- evasion. Several groups have now demonstrated that human malignant gliomas are universally infected with HCMV and express gene products that can promote key signaling pathways in glioma pathogenesis. In this review I discuss specific HCMV gene products that we and others have recently found to be expressed in GBM in vivo, including the HCMV IE1, US28, gB and IL-10 proteins. The roles these HCMV gene products play in dysregulating key pathways in glioma biology, including the PDGFR, AKT, STAT3, and monocyte/microglia function are discussed. Finally, I review emerging human clinical trials for GBM based on anti-HCMV strategies.