While fruits and vegetables are recommended for prevention of cancer and other diseases, their active ingredients (at the molecular level) and their mechanisms of action less well understood. Extensive research during the last half century has identiﬁed various molecular
targets that can potentially be used not only for the prevention of cancer but also for treatment. This research report lists common molecular targets that cancer controls to our detriment. Then it shows you what foods specifically can counteract those targets.
Lack of success with targeted monotherapy resulting from bypass mechanisms has forced researchers to employ either combination therapy or agents that interfere with multiple cell-signaling pathways. In this review, we present evidence that numerous agents identiﬁed from fruits and vegetables can interfere with several cell signaling pathways. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulﬁde (allium), S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin (fenugreek), 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears, prunes), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol (anise, camphor, and fennel), catechins (green tea), eugenol (cloves), indole-3 carbinol (cruciferous vegetables), limonene (citrus fruits), beta carotene (carrots), and dietary ﬁber. For instance, the cell-signaling pathways inhibited by curcumin alone include NF-kB, AP-1, STAT3, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, caspases, PARP, IKK, EGFR, HER2, JNK, MAPK, COX2, and 5-LOX. The active principle identiﬁed in fruit and vegetables and the molecular targets modulated may be the basis for how these dietary agents not only prevent but also treat cancer and other diseases. This work reafﬁrms what Hippocrates said 25 centuries ago, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.